Professor Quake conducts research based on bringing precision measurement to biology. He and his students pursue two main avenues of technology development in order to improve biological measurement techniques. The first has been to develop the biological equivalent of the integrated circuit: microfluidic large scale integration (LSI). Chips are fabricated with thousands of micromechanical valves, each enabling exquisite control over its biological contents. The second is the development and application of ultra high throughput DNA sequencing technology. Quake’s work in single molecule biophysics led to the first demonstration of single molecule sequencing, leading to research in human genetics, immunology, and the development of new clinical diagnostics.